What is Hip Replacement Surgery ?
Hip replacement surgery in India(or hip arthroplasty) is one of the most common orthopaedic surgical procedure performed. It’s a procedure in which the hip joint is operated and replaced with a prosthetic implant. It can be either total or hemi hip replacement surgery depending upon the underlying cause and individual requirements.
Causes and Indications for hip replacement surgery
One obvious factor for requiring hip replacement surgery in India is severe trauma to the hip joint. However, there are various medical conditions too which may result in joint erosion and damage, requiring the replacement of the hip joint either completely or partially.
Medical conditions that may lead to the need for hip replacement are:
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Jevunile rheumatoid arthritis
- Avascular necrosis (as a result of injury or fracture of hip joint or neck of femur)
- Paget’s disease, ankylosing spondylititis
- Traumatic arthritis
- Tumors of bones involving hip joint
- Protrusion acetabuli
It’s important to note that hip replacement surgery is performed once the medical therapy and physiotherapy has failed in relieving the symptoms and the joint disease is causing functional loss to the patient.
Hip joint replacement surgery is commonly done in old age patients, but the younger patients might need the procedure too in some cases.
Difference between Total and Hemi Hip Replacement Surgeries
Hip joint is formed by the hip bone and the head of the femur bone (long bone of the leg). If the joint forming ends of both the bones need replacement, it’s called total hip replacement surgery, however if only one of the bone is damaged and needs replacement, it’s called hemi hip replacement surgery (or partial hip replacement surgery).
What’s done in hip replacement surgery?
Hip replacement surgery in India is usually performed under general anesthesia. Once the patient is unconscious under the anesthesia, the surgeon replaces both the ends of either both the joint surfaces or one (depending upon total or hemi arthroplasty being performed). Some surgeons might give an option for being operated with regional anesthesia, in which the patient remains fully aware, just the part being operated is made numb and immobile, so that no pain or sensation is felt during the procedure.
The surgeon uses metal, ceramic or plastic prosthetic parts to replace the components of the joint, i.e. the ball part and the upper part of femur, the long thigh bone, while the socket for artificial hip joint is placed into the socket of pelvic bone. During the hip replacement surgery, the damage joint cartilage is also replaced.
Bone cement might or might not be used in a hip replacement surgery. In cemented joints, the bone cement acts as a glue between the bone and the prosthetic joint being replaced, while in the non-cemented ones, the porous coating is used which allows the joint to become strong as the bone grows itself and fills up the porous coating.
Life after Hip replacement surgery
Hip replacement surgery surely relieves the pain up to minimum level in the patient. Other than that, the patient can perform the daily routines tasks normally. The replaced hip remains in good form for at least 10-20 years, without loosening up. However it’s important to keep weight in control, as every pound weight gain means 3 pound gain effect on the replaced hip joint.
Your doctor might advice you to avoid activities which put stress on the hip joint such as jogging, however you can still perform activities such as biking, swimming, dancing, etc.
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